Anatomy of retina ppt

When an ophthalmologist uses an ophthalmoscope to look into your eye he sees the following view of the retina Fig. In the center of the retina is the optic nerve, a circular to oval white area measuring about 2 x 1. From the center of the optic nerve radiates the major blood vessels of the retina. Approximately 17 degrees 4. A circular field of approximately 6 mm around the fovea is considered the central retina while beyond this is peripheral retina stretching to the ora serrata, 21 mm from the center of the retina fovea.

The retina is approximately 0. The optic nerve contains the ganglion cell axons running to the brain and, additionally, incoming blood vessels that open into the retina to vascularize the retinal layers and neurons Fig.

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A radial section of a portion of the retina reveals that the ganglion cells the output neurons of the retina lie innermost in the retina closest to the lens and front of the eye, and the photosensors the rods and cones lie outermost in the retina against the pigment epithelium and choroid.

Light must, therefore, travel through the thickness of the retina before striking and activating the rods and cones Fig.

Anatomy of The Eye - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Subsequently the absorbtion of photons by the visual pigment of the photoreceptors is translated into first a biochemical message and then an electrical message that can stimulate all the succeeding neurons of the retina. The retinal message concerning the photic input and some preliminary organization of the visual image into several forms of sensation are transmitted to the brain from the spiking discharge pattern of the ganglion cells.

A simplistic wiring diagram of the retina emphasizes only the sensory photoreceptors and the ganglion cells with a few interneurons connecting the two cell types such as seen in Figure 2.

Anatomy Of the Retina (Part 1/2)

Simple organization of the retina. When an anatomist takes a vertical section of the retina and processes it for microscopic examination it becomes obvious that the retina is much more complex and contains many more nerve cell types than the simplistic scheme above had indicated.

Simple Anatomy of the Retina by Helga Kolb

It is immediately obvious that there are many interneurons packed into the central part of the section of retina intervening between the photoreceptors and the ganglion cells Fig 3. All vertebrate retinas are composed of three layers of nerve cell bodies and two layers of synapses Fig. The outer nuclear layer contains cell bodies of the rods and cones, the inner nuclear layer contains cell bodies of the bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells and the ganglion cell layer contains cell bodies of ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells.

Dividing these nerve cell layers are two neuropils where synaptic contacts occur Fig.

anatomy of retina ppt

The first area of neuropil is the outer plexiform layer OPL where connections between rod and cones, and vertically running bipolar cells and horizontally oriented horizontal cells occur Figs. The second neuropil of the retina, is the inner plexiform layer IPLand it functions as a relay station for the vertical-information-carrying nerve cells, the bipolar cells, to connect to ganglion cells Figs.

In addition, different varieties of horizontally- and vertically-directed amacrine cells, somehow interact in further networks to influence and integrate the ganglion cell signals.

It is at the culmination of all this neural processing in the inner plexiform layer that the message concerning the visual image is transmitted to the brain along the optic nerve. Central and peripheral retina compared. Central retina close to the fovea is considerably thicker than peripheral retina compare Figs.Accessory Structure of the Eye Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland - lateral end of eye - produces lacrimal fluid Lacrimal canals - drain lacrimal fluid from eyes.

Extrinsic Eye Muscles Muscles attach to the outer surface of the eye Produce eye movements. Superior oblique moves eyeball inferiorly, rotates eyeball medially Inferior oblique- moves eyeball superiorly, rotates it laterally. The Fibrous Tunic Sclera outermost tunic Thick white connective tissue layer Seen anteriorly as the white of the eye Cornea Transparent, central anterior portion Allows for light to pass through Most exposed part Repairs itself easily the only human tissue that can be transplanted without fear of rejection When touched it will cause blinking and tearing of eyes Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Vascular Layer Choroid Blood-rich nutritive tunic Pigment prevents light from scattering Modified anteriorly into two structures Ciliary body smooth muscles Iris Pigmented layer that gives eye color With circularly and radially arranged smooth muscles Pupil rounded opening in the iris Close vision and bright light pupils will constrict distant vision and dim light pupils will dilate.

Sensory Tunic Retina Innermost tunic Extends anteriorly to the ciliary body Contains photoreceptor cells Rods and cones. Allow dim light vision and peripheral vision Perception is all in gray tones Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Neurons of the Retina and Vision Cones Allow for detailed color vision Fovea centralis - area of the retina with only cones - Area with great or sharpest vision No photoreceptor cells are at the optic disk, or blind spot Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Lens Biconvex crystal-like structure Held in place by a suspensory ligament attached to the ciliary body. Internal Eye Chamber Fluids Aqueous humor Watery fluid found in chamber between the lens and cornea Similar to blood plasma Helps maintain intraocular pressure Provides nutrients for the lens and cornea. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days.

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A radial section of a portion of the retina reveals that the ganglion cells the output neurons of the retina lie innermost in the retina closest to the lens and front of the eye, and the photosensors the rods and cones lie outermost in the retina against the pigment epithelium and choroid.

Light must, therefore, travel through the thickness of the retina before striking and activating the rods and cones Fig. Subsequently the absorbtion of photons by the visual pigment of the photoreceptors is translated into first a biochemical message and then an electrical message that can stimulate all the succeeding neurons of the retina.

The retinal message concerning the photic input and some preliminary organization of the visual image into several forms of sensation are transmitted to the brain from the spiking discharge pattern of the ganglion cells.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.

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Part II: Anatomy and Physiology of the retina

Title: Anatomy of The Eye. Composed of : Eyeball. The adnexa. Tags: anatomy eye. Latest Highest Rated. Composed of Eyeball. Anterior pole the highest point on cornea. Posterior pole the highest point on posterior surface. Optic axis the straight line passing through both poles 5 The Eyeball Equator an imaginary line about the eyeball, which is the equidistant from the poles.

Meridian is one of many lines passing from pole to pole that intersects the equator at right angles. An external fibrous tunic that gives form to and protects the eyeball its the only complete tunic. A middle vascular tunic that consist largely of blood vessels and smooth muscle concerned with the nutrition of the eyeball and the regulation of the shape of the lens and size of pupil. An internal tunic that consists largely of nervous tissue concerned with vision and translation of visual stimuli into nerve impulses for interpretation by the brain.

The sclera is the opaque posterior part of the fibrous tunic and consists of a dense felt work of colagenous and elastic fibers and is generally white but in some species it contain pigment cells 10 The fibrous tunic The cornea forms about one quarter of the fibrous tunic and bulges forward.

It is composed off dense connective tissue arranged in lamellar form.

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The cornea doesnt contain blood vessels nutrients for its cells permeate from vessels in the limbus or are carried to it its surface in the lacrimal fluid and aqueous humor. The tapetum makes the eyes of animals shine when they look toward the light. Our eyes and those of the pig dont have a tapetum so they dont reflect the light. This reflecting of light is a night vision adaptation because of stimulation of the light sensitive receptors in the retina.

It attached to sclera and ciliary body by pectinate ligament. The color of the iris determines the color of the eye depends on the number of the pigmented cells present in its stroma the type of the pigment in the cells.

Its an extension of the brain to which remains connected by the optic nerve. Aneuroepithelialm layer containing the receptor cells, rods and cones and their nuclei.

A layer of bipolar ganglion cells. A layer of multipolar ganglion cells nonmyelinated axons lying internal to the cells and pass to the optic disc where they form the optic nerve.

The optic disc is a blind area because there is no receptor cell. The periorbital is attached near the optic foramen at the apex of the cone. The superficial muscular fascia lies within the periorbital. Its loose and fatty.

And envelops in the levator palpebrae superioris and the lacrimal gland.Toggle navigation.

anatomy of retina ppt

Help Preferences Sign up Log in. Featured Presentations. It alters its shape according to theI requirements of the accommodative process. Anatomy - The Retina The retina is a thin, semitransparent, multilayered sheet of neural tissue that lines the inner aspect of the posterior two-thirds of the wall of the globe.

The Retina The retina is a thin, semitransparent, multilayered sheet of neural tissue that lines the inner aspect of the posterior two-thirds of the wall of the globe. Process of absorption, storage, and use of food for body repair, The suprarenal adrenal gland sits on top of each kidney.

Renal Blood Vessels: Renal Artery supplies blood Eye Anatomy - Eye. Aqueous Humour.

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Vitreous Humour. Optic Disc. Optic Nerve Red marrow long bones and manufacture red blood cells. Found between muscles and an outside covering for blood vessels and nerves. B is for Bicep It is the anterior part of the upper arms.

Faisal Abdillahi White 2 A is for Abdominals They are the muscles that are between your pelvis and thorax. Anatomie a fyziologie oka II. Jana Kalitov MUDr. Kate ina pa kov 2. External Anatomy of the Eye Thompson The Special Senses. Anatomy of the Eye - Anatomy of the Eye.

Eye Anatomy - Eye Anatomy Human eye ball is about 1 inch in diameter. Eye Anatomy Human eye ball is about 1 inch in diameter. Facial Anatomy - Facial Anatomy. Angle of Mandible. Mental Protuberance. Mental Foramen Facial Anatomy.

Ocular Anatomy Structure of a Nerve Cranial Nerves Cranial Nerves Found on Anatomy and diseases of the uvea - Anatomy and diseases of the uvea Anatomy: Uvea is the vascular coat of eye ball and lies between the sclera and retina. Uvea is composed of three parts i.Toggle navigation.

Help Preferences Sign up Log in. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: The Human Eye. Description: The Human Eye The Human Eye Refractive index of lens different for each wavelength colour Cool colours blues appear closer; warm colours reds further away Agree?

Provided by: Deborah Tags: artificial eye human. Latest Highest Rated. Others see the opposite. How about you? Have you stretched your eye muscles yet? Then do that now! What do you see? Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.

The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Read again. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use PowerShow. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free.

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anatomy of retina ppt

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